When the city of Mexico-Tenochtitlan fell, the conquest of Oaxaca formally began under the orders of Cortés, by Gonzalo de Sandoval, Francisco de Orozco and Pedro de Alvarado. The conquest was not easy, due to the resistance that the natives opposed.

Finally, the Spanish managed to pacify the region and settle in 1524 with five hundred Spanish families in the indigenous settlement of Huaxyacac, which over the years would become Antequera, capital of the province of Oaxaca. At first the town did not develop because Cortés prevented it, since he considered that it was within the limits of the Marquesado. However, once the power of the conqueror of Mexico diminished, the residents of the town organized and managed to get Carlos V to order the lots to be distributed on September 14, 1526, and to declare the town Villa de Antequera de Oaxaca.

On April 25, 1532, Oaxaca was granted the title of city. As the problems with Cortés continued to dominate the city, the solution was presented when it was divided in two, leaving Oaxaca for the Indians and Antequera for the Spanish, a division that persisted well into the 20th century. The original layout of the city was entrusted to Alonso García Bravo, “who was inspired by the Renaissance concept”.

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